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Miliyari enye z’abatuye isi bafite uburwayi bw’amenyo

Mu cyegeranyo cyashyizwe ahagaragara n’urubuga rw’Ibiro Ntaramakuru by’Abanyamerika kuri uyu wa 03 Kamena 2013, hatangajwe ko hafi kimwe cya kabiri cy’abatuye isi bafite uburwayi bw’amenyo bitewe no kutita ku isuku yo mu kanwa.

Nk’uko byatangajwe n’umwe mu bakoze ubushakashatsi, Prof Wagner Marcenes, abesnhi mu bafite uburwayi mu kanwa usanga batabujyana kwa muganga, bakaba bagaragaje indwara zinyuranye 291 zibasira amenyo.

Prof. Wagner yagize ati, "twakoranye n’inzobere zisaga 500, aho twabashije kuvumbura indwara zo mu kanwa. Nubwo zikunze kwibasira cyane abatuye mu bihugu byateye imbere, bimaze kugaragara ko izi ndwara zisatira Afurika yo munsi y’ubutayu bwa Sahara, aho usanga bibanda cyane ku kurwanya virusi itera Sida gusa, bakibagirwa izindi ndwara.”

Uyu mushakashatsi akomeza avuga ko kuba indwara z’amenyo ziri kwibasira abatuye umugabane wa Afurika biri guterwa ahanini n’uko bagenda bashaka kubaho nko mu bihugu byateye imbere, bigana indyo yabo usanga yiganjemo amasukari.

Prof Wagner ati "amasukari aboneka mu ndyo z’ibihugu byateye imbere niyo abatera indwara z’amenyo kuko mbere y’ikinyejana cya 19 wasangaga abarwaye amenyo ari bake kuko isukari yari itarakwirakwira; gukoresha isukari cyane kandi biri mu bitera umubyibuho ukabije.”

Akomeza avuga ko ariko mu bihugu byateye imbere bagerageza kugabanya indwara z’amenyo bashyira fluoride mu mazi bakoresha, gusa ngo nayo n’ubwo ituma amenyo adafatwa n’uburwayi, ishobora kuganisha ku kumva umuntu ashaka ibinyamasukari.

Prof. Wagner akaba asanga abatuye umugabane wa Afurika ndetse na Aziya bakagombye kureba ibibazo by’ubuzima ibihugu byateye imbere bifite, bakirinda kwigana indyo yabo, ibi ngo bikaba byagerwaho ari uko habayeho ubukangurambaga n’inyigisho ku bitera indwara zo mu kanwa, ndetse abantu bakamenyera umuco wo kurya indyo yuzuye itiganjemo ibibyibushya cyane cyangwa amasukari menshi kuko biri mu bitera izo ndwara.
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Umuntu umwe muri barindwi batuye isi araburara

Mu gihe kuri uyu wa 05 Kamena 2013 isi yose yizihije umunsi mpuzamahanga w’ibidukikije ku nsanganyamatsiko igira iti "Tekereza, rya kandi wizigamire.” Abatuye isi barasabwa kudasesagura n’ibiribwa bike babonye.
Kugeza ubu kimwe cya gatatu cy’ibiribwa bihingwa ku isi birangirika mu gihe cy’itunganganwa cyangwa cyo gukoreshwa, mu gihe umuntu umwe muri barindwi aburara. Miliyoni 870 barya nabi ndetse abana barenga 20,000 bari mu kigero cyo munsi y’imyaka 5 bicwa n’inzara cyangwa indwara zifitanye isano n’indyo mbi.

Nk’uko byatangajwe n’Umuhuzabikorwa w’Umuryango w’Abibumbye (UN) mu Rwanda, Lamin M. Manneh avuga ko gupfa ubusa kw’ibiribwa biba mu gihe cy’ihinga ndetse na nyuma y’isarura, bikongera kugaruka mu gihe cyo gucuruza. Ngo ibi biterwa ahanini na tekinoloji nke ndetse n’uko nta bikorwa remezo bihagije byifashishwa.

Nko mu bihugu bikize, buri mwaka bapfusha ubusa ibiribwa bingana na toni 300 bishobora gutunga abaturage bo muri Afurika yo munsi y’ubutayu bwa Sahara bangana na miliyoni 900 bicwa n’inzara.

Mu Rwanda, nubwo imibare y’ibiribwa bipfa ubusa itaramenyekana neza, mu mwaka wa 2011 Minisiteri y’Ubuhinzi n’Ubworozi yagaragaje ko 22% by’ibiribwa bipfa ubusa nyuma y’isarurwa, mu gihe mu ibarura rya 2012 ku mirire, hagaragajwe ko abana bari munsi y’imyaka itanu bafite imirire mibi banganaga na 43%.

Mu ngamba Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yafashe, harimo gahunda zivugurura ubuhinzi hagamijwe kongera umusaruro w’ibiribwa n’ibikomoka ku matungo, kongera ibijyanye no kuhira ndetse no kubungabunga amazi, hakaza na gahunda mbaturabukungu y’icyiciro cya kabiri iteganya kugira uruhare mu iterambere ry’icyaro.

Ku bijyanye no guhunika imyaka, kugeza ubu ku nkunga ya One UN hamaze kubakwa ibigega byo guhunika imyaka ndetse hatanzwe amahugurwa ku bahinzi ajyanye n’uburyo bwiza bwo gufata umusaruro hatabayeho gupfushwa ubusa.

Muri rusange ibikorwa bijyanye n’ubuhinzi bw’imyaka bukorerwa ahangana na 25% by’ubutaka butuwe, bukajyana amazi angana na 70%, ndetse bikagira uruhare mu gutema amashyamba ku kigero cya 80% no kuzamura ibyuka bihumanya bingana na 30%.

Umunsi mpuzamahanga w’ibidukikije wizihijwe mu gihe abaturage batuye isi bangana na miliyari zisaga 7, bikaba biteganijwe ko mu mwaka wa 2050 bazagera kuri miliyari 9.
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Bimwe mu bibazo bibangamiye abavuzi gakondo

Abakora umwuga w’ubuvuzi gakondo baratangaza ko ibibazo bibuvugwamo bishingiye ku bintu 4 by’ingenzi, ari byo: itegeko, ubuyobozi, ubujiji n’ibikoresho.

1. Itegeko

Abavuzi gakondo bavuga ko kutagira itageko ribagenga biri mu bizana akajagari mu buvuzi gakondo, kugera aho bamwe mu babugana babavanaho icyizere, bavuga ko hinjiyemo n’abatekamutwe.

Ibi kandi binavugwa na Perezida w’ishyirahamwe ry’abavuzi gakondo mu Rwanda (AGA Rwanda Network), Rekeraho Emmanuel, utangaza ko kuva mu mwaka wa 2011 basabye Minisiteri y’Ubuzima kubafasha hagashyirwaho itegeko ribagenga, ariko ko na n’ubu bakomeje guhera mu gihirahiro.

2. Ubuyobozi

Nk’uko bitangazwa na bamwe mu bavuzi gakondo batashatse ko amazina yabo atangazwa. Mu kiganiro bagiranye n’ikinyamakuru Izuba Rirashe, bavuze ko ubuyobozi bubi bwadindije imikorere yabo.

Aha batanga urugero ku ibarura bakorewe mu mwaka ushize wa 2012, babizeza ko nyuma yaryo bazagira imikorere myiza, ariko ngo si ko byagenze.

Abayobozi batungwa agatoki mu kubadinziza, ngo ni abamwe mu bayobora AGA, bakekwaho kuba baranyereje amafaranga y’inkunga agera kuri miliyoni mirongo irindwi n’enye (74.000.000 frw) z’amafaranga y’u Rwanda yatanzwe n’Umuryango Mpuzamahanga wita ku Buzima (OMS), agamije guteza imbere ubuvuzi gakondo.

2. Ubujiji

Ubujiji nabwo buri mu bituma ubuvuzi gakondo budindira, nk’uko bigaragazwa n’imibare yavuye mu ibarura ryakozwe mu mwaka ushize wa 2012, aho ryerekana ko abavuzi gakondo batazi gusoma no kwandika bari ku kigereranyo cya 92%.

Ikibazo cy’ubujiji gituma ababagana babanenga mu mitegurire y’imiti no mu mitangire yayo, aho usanga bahaye umurwayi amacupa y’imiti itandukanye, ariko ntibamubwire igipimo ari bugendereho ayinywa.

3. Ibikoresho

Ikibazo cy’ibikoresho byifashishwa mu gutegura imiti gakondo nabyo biri mu bibangamiye aba bavuzi, kuko akenshi imiti yabo iba igaragara nk’ifite umwanda kubera uburyo ibikwa hifashishijwe amacupa yakuwemo ibindi binyobwa.

Nyirankesha Madelena ni umwe mu bavuzi gakondo bo mu Murenge wa Jabana mu Karere ka Gasabo, avugana n’ikinyamakuru Izuba Rirashe, yagize ati "Birababaje kuba twirirwa turwanira n’abana uducupa abagenzi bataye mu muhanda, dushakisha aho twabika imiti yacu.”

Uyu muvuzi ngo yifuza ko nk’uko hagiyeho ishyirahamwe ry’abavuzi gakondo, hakwiye no kujyaho uruganda rutunganya amacupa abikwamo imiti yabo, kuko ari byo bizatuma babasha gushyiraho igihe umuti wakorewe n’igihe uzarangirira, kandi ukabikwa mu buryo busukuye.

Ku ruhande rwa Minisiteri y’Ubuzima (MINISANTE), Umuyobozi w’ishami rishinzwe gutangaza amakuru mu Kigo cy’Igihugu Gishinzwe Ubuzima, Mugume Nathan yavuze ko ku bijyane no guca akajagari kavugwa mu buvuzi gakondo, hazajyaho itsinda rizashyiraho amabwiriza ngenderwaho ku bakora uwo mwuga.
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